So I was walking along listening to a Māori recording today, and I realised I was pronouncing a word incorrectly.
As an aside, I think one of the benefits of listening to recordings while walking is that you don’t have any pressures on you like you do in a conversation or when studying, so you can just chill and mull over the words. If you don’t understand it all properly this might be even better as you are really focussing on the words you do understand.
Anyway, one of the kuia used the word māmā (easy) at the end of a sentence, so it stood out very clearly, and I suddenly realised that I had been saying it wrong! And I think many of my fellow second language learners will find the same thing.
If you look at the word māmā, you will see it has two macrons, one over each ‘a’. But if you say māmā to yourself, what do you say? If you are like me, you actually say māma – what I do, and what I have heard meany others do, is pronounce the first ā long, and then make the second ‘a’ sound very short. We’ve made up an entirely new word that doesn’t exist. Basically, this is English-style pronunciation!
I think there is a general reluctance amongst NZ English speakers to pronounce two long vowels in a row, because we don’t do it when speaking English so it sounds and feels weird to us. So this week my challenge to you is to keep an eye out for those pairs of long vowels and check if you are pronouncing them both long and both the same length.
One really important thing to get the hang of early on in learning te reo Māori is the use of LONG vs SHORT vowels.
The vowels in Māori are written as follows, with a macron or tohutō over the top to indicate the long vowels:
The long vowels should be pronounced twice as long as the short vowels. This is why you will also see the long vowels written as aa, ee, ii, oo, uu – especially in older writing, and in situations where it’s difficult to type the tohutō. The double letter is a nice way of indicating long vowels because it is very clearly two in a row! But I find that having a line over the top also creates the feeling of “length” in my mind.
When you’re just starting off, the difference in the vowels might not seem important – but the vowel length changes the meaning of the words, as well as affecting the rhythm of the language.
Here’s some examples of change in meaning:
- keke (cake) vs. kekē (creak) vs. kēkē (armpit)
- pahi (bus) vs. pāhi (purse)
- tata (close) vs. tatā (to bail out water) vs. tātā (to strike repeatedly)
- kaka (clothing) vs. kakā (hot) vs. kākā (parrot)
As you can see, there’s a lot of difference! To save yourself trouble later on, practice writing and saying words correctly when you learn them. Unlike English, Māori words are said like they’re written, and written like they’re said. So once you learn how to pronounce a word correctly, you can automatically spell it too!
For this Māori Language Week 2017, news site Stuff announced that they would now be using macrons, recognising their importance, which is a great move.
I thought of doing some regular posts for mnemonics. I don’t know if there’s a Māori word for mnemonic – whakamaharatanga is already taken (meaning memorial or commemoration or similar). I was thinking I could call my mnemonics posts “Mnemonic Monday” – but of course the alliteration doesn’t work. Oh well, lets do it anyway!
For our first Mnemonics Monday we have the words marama and mārama.
- marama means month or moon
- mārama means to understand (amongst other things)
Most people learn these words fairly early on, but someone in my TWoA class came up with a good way to remember which one has the tohutō (macron) and which one doesn’t – which is something I ALWAYS used to forget until now.
So, how do you remember whether the tohutō goes in the word for moon, or the word for understand? Well, another word for tohutō is pōtae, meaning hat. A hat goes on your head and you use your head to understand. So, you know that mārama, with the hat, means to understand!
- On the left, the moon with the words “He marama tēnei” (This is a moon)
- On the right are three women graduating, wearing their graduation pōtae, with the words “Kei te mārama rātou” (They understand)
Let me know if this helps you too!
So here’s a fairly practical post about how to set up the Māori keyboard on your Mac computer so you can type the macrons – ā, ē, ī, ō, ū.
Note: Macrons in Māori are called tohutō. Some people call them pōtae (hat). If you have trouble remember the macron in the spelling, try to remember that “tohutō has a tohutō”
- Go to Keyboard in your System Preferences by one of two methods:
- Open Spotlight using the magnifying glass icon and type Keyboard and press Enter
- Click on the Apple icon, choose System Preferences, and then choose Keyboard
- Choose Input Sources
- Click the + plus button at the bottom of the window
- Choose Māori from the list and click Add
That’s all. In your top menu bar by your clock, you’ll see a little language flag.
If you click on it you can change between keyboards that you have activated (e.g. Australian and Māori). My advice is that if you type only English and Māori, leave it on the Māori keyboard as then it is always ready to go – it doesn’t cause you any problems when typing English.
So how do you actually type the tohutō?!
It takes a little bit of getting used to, but to type a vowel with a macron, you press the tilde button immediately before pressing the vowel. The tilde button is in the top left of your keyboard and has these two symbols on it ` ~ (the second one is the tilde).
For example, to type the word tohutō, you type t o h u t ~ o. When you press the tilde button, nothing will happen, but when you press the o, the ō will appear. (Try it and it will make a lot more sense.)